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Saturday, November 18, 2023

The Nature of L2L Contracts: Ideas Prompted by a Chris Simkins Weblog Put up


I seen the latest publish by Chris Simkins on his Enhancing Contracts weblog. Entitled L2L Contracts: Considering past B2C and B2B, it explores the implications of, effectively, L2L contracts.

What are L2L contracts, you ask? Right here’s what Chris says:

Once I use L2L, I don’t imply a contract between two legal professionals, or two legislation companies. I’m utilizing it to explain the people who find themselves primarily concerned in getting ready and agreeing the contract. By way of that lens, an L2L contract turns into one the place it’s legal professionals that lead the method of writing, studying, negotiating and finalising the contract paperwork on either side.

Chris’s publish is insightful and well timed. It prompted the next ideas.

The Authorized Fashion: It’s Worse Than You Assume

Chris refers to “a (rising) cultural divide” between B2B (business-to-business) and B2C (business-to-consumer) contracts, on the one hand, and L2L contracts, however. One drawback is how L2L contracts are written. Right here’s Chris’s take:

Legal professionals are educated and conditioned to make use of a authorized type, which not solely turns into acquainted, however really turns into simpler for them to make use of. It’s a kind of code the place phrases and phrases develop widespread meanings.

A few of this isn’t simply OK, it may be optimistic. And the identical kind of factor occurs in different walks of life. Medical doctors speak physician. Accountants speak accountant.

The issues come when somebody who’s not a lawyer (or used to working with authorized paperwork) must learn and perceive a contract. The apparent instance being a client that struggles to learn on-line phrases and circumstances – or, extra possible, simply ignores them.

Authorized language might be exhausting to observe for anybody who’s not used to studying it. The difficulty is, it’s additionally exhausting for many who are used to studying it to cease writing it. And that’s as a result of legal professionals sometimes be taught their craft in a tradition of L2L contracts.

This view is extensively shared by those that assume conventional contract drafting isn’t preferrred—”Hey, legal professionals! Take into consideration the remainder of us!” But it surely doesn’t mirror what’s really occurring.

Conventional contract language, in all its legalistic glory, doesn’t perform as legit code. As a substitute, it’s a semiliterate mess, when it comes to each what it says and the way it says it. And legal professionals are squarely among the many bamboozled.

If you need proof to that impact, I’ve compiled a mountain of it. Leaf by means of A Handbook of Fashion for Contract Drafting, or browse my articles and my weblog posts. For instance, you could possibly learn my evaluation of use of the phrase consequential damages in limitation-of-liability provisions (right here). You would learn my three most up-to-date posts on M&A drafting (right here) for examples of fundamental misconceptions. Or you could possibly learn my article about efforts provisions (right here).

So let’s put an finish to the notion that conventional contract language displays legal professionals speaking effectively with different legal professionals. It’s an evidence that appeals to the vainness of legal professionals, who’re a fan of any take that implies that legal professionals are smarter than others.

As a substitute, let’s acknowledge that conventional contract drafting consists of good folks partaking in a dumb course of, as a result of they’re oblivious, as a result of they don’t have another alternative, or as a result of cognitive dissonance has left them incapable of recognizing the mess for what it’s.

Let’s Not Neglect MSCD!

Below the heading “The Occasions They Are A-changing,” Chris mentions some tendencies that recommend the potential for shifting away from the L2L mindset.

To that record, I’d add the arrival and maturity of A Handbook of Fashion for Contract Drafting. (I hope that’s not too bumptious!) For contracts to be clear and concise, those that work with contracts should be knowledgeable customers of contract language. The trail to turning into an knowledgeable client of contract language passes by means of MSCD, now in its fifth version. As a information to the constructing blocks of contract language, it’s the one recreation on the town.

Fallible Drafting Isn’t Restricted to L2L Contracts

Chris describes a transfer away from legalistic drafting:

The final decade has seen big quantities of consideration and funding focussed on streamlining how contracts are agreed and managed. There’s loads of drivers for this, however the apparent ones – it received’t shock you to listen to – are lowering time and value.

A method of reaching these goals is to scale back dependencies on legal professionals wherever you possibly can (and the place acceptable). To realize that, it helps to start out creating contracts that enterprise folks can use with little or no assist from legal professionals. Or, to place it one other approach, it helps to intentionally begin creating B2B contracts as an alternative of L2L contracts. And so, very slowly, that is beginning to occur.

I too have seen this development, however I’ve additionally seen seen that the backlash in opposition to legalistic drafting can result in naivety about what’s required for enterprise contracts to work effectively. See this 2017 weblog publish for an instance of that.

“Examined” Contract Language? No Thanks!

Chris means that the urge to draft clearer contracts is at odds with the tendency of legal professionals to depend on “examined” contract language for boilerplate provisions, akin to limitation-of-liability provisions.

That’s definitely the case, however assessing the implications requires acknowledging that counting on “examined” contract language doesn’t provide a refuge. As a substitute, it’s one other supply of dysfunction, as a result of it causes you to depend on contract language that has resulted in fights. (For hyperlinks to my varied posts on this topic, see this weblog publish from final month.)

So reliance on examined contract language shouldn’t be a supply of rigidity. As a substitute, it’s extra traditionalist useless wooden to be carted off in favor of expressing clearly no matter association you need.

The Repair

The second half of Chris’s publish is about how we bridge the hole between B2B and B2C contracts and L2L contracts.

I believe the repair would require work, however it is going to be easy work. When you settle for that conventional contract drafting is dysfunctional and that the blueprint for clear and concise contracts is to be present in MSCD, there’s now not any thriller relating to what fashionable contracts ought to seem like, when it comes to the way you deploy the constructing blocks of contract language to say no matter you wish to say.

However as Chris notes, that leaves us with a problem:

The problem for anybody eager to undertake a special type is that they face the prospect of doing one thing that’s more likely to be slower and more durable – and by extension, costlier – not less than till such time as there’s simple and widespread entry to appropriate assets to reuse.

I’ve been bleating about this problem myself for 15 years. Let’s see what we are able to do to handle this problem.

A Legitimate Distinction Stays

When you consign L2L contracts to oblivion due to their dysfunction, you’re left with a legitimate distinction—that between B2B contracts and B2C contracts.

Other than the distinction within the sorts of transactions expressed within the two classes of contracts, the distinction is primarily a perform of phrases of artwork. In MSCD, I outline enterprise contracts as “contracts between companies that both are skilled in dealing with transactions or are represented by legal professionals.” That degree of sophistication justifies utilizing legit phrases of artwork—ones that it will be a nuisance to have to exchange. In MSCD, I provide safety curiosity for example. Reliable phrases of artwork might be distinguished from problematic phrases of artwork, pointless phrases of artwork, and improvised phrases of artwork.

After all, whether or not a time period of artwork is legit time period is perhaps up for dialogue. See for instance this 2022 weblog publish about indemnify.

Against this, for functions of B2C contracts, it will be finest to imagine that buyers received’t perceive phrases of artwork.



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